The Enigma of Pelasgians and Etruscans

Pelasgians, ancient people, the ancestors of all the Indo-European people, these people were known to illuminate and give the culture to Europe, about them it is known little, or better to say nearly nothing.
The' alphabet of these mysterious people is called Pelasgic from the civilization that created it, DIODORUS SICULUS informs to us that the Pre-Homeric poets expressed themselves just with that alphabet, and from the same source, we learn that, at least 10 centuries aC. That same writing was used. Moreover Diodorus reports that they were the first to bring their alphabet in Italy, as well as to the rest of Europe, practicing opportune adaptations and improvements.
Also Pliny the Elder confirms the information of Diodorus.
Virgil (Aeneid, VIII, V. 62-63), writes:
"It is said that the first dwellers of our Italy were the Pelasgians" .
From the ancient authors we have learned that before the arrival of the Greeks, those territories were known as Pelasgia, the several sources inform to us moreover, than the Greeks learned from the Pelasgians not only the art of the working of the metals, of the construction of walls, but they learned, improving it, their way of writing and made their divinity their own.
Several populations, species the pelasgic one, have given to the country their name
Pausanias (Arcadia, VIII, 1,4,6) reports:
The Arcadians tell that Pelasgus was the first born in Arcadia. Since Pelasgus became king, the country was called Pelasgia in his honour
Pindar (Carminia, Fragmenta Selecta, I, 240) tells:
Bringing a beautifull gift, the earth made the first human being, the "Divine pelasgus", be born in arcadia, long before making the moon¯
Pindar's narration could appear as poetically, or even mythically, inspired, thought long later scientists have proved that the moon is formed by fragments separated from our globe.
Homer mentions the Pelasgians between allied with the Troyans, (Iliad, II, 840-843) and narrates that Achille prayed the "PELASGIAN ZEUS OF DODONA" (the Iliad, XVI, 223). Homer also mentions them also like PEOPLE of Crete, (Odyssey, XIX, 177).
Ephorus the historian reports of a book of Esiod that attests the tradition of people of the Pelasgians in Arcadia and develops the theory that was people of warriors from a native land that annexed and had colonized all the regions of Greece in which the ancient authors talk about, from Dodona to Clay to the fine Triade in Italy, where their very recognizable takeovers are anchor in the time of the Elleni and are in tightened relation with the Tyrrhenians
The characteristic structure of the masonry of the citadel of Atene is made of constructions in squared blocks and without the use of mortar wouldn't have had the name of pelasgian masonry, exactly as sometimes they are said giant walls(cyclopic in italian language), that is constructed from the Pelasgians, those who taught to the Greeks the methods of the constructions, the way to write and their culture.

dodona

(a fantastic wiew of Dodona, perhaps the centre of the Pelasgians)

We could continue infinitely with citations of the Pelasgians, in order to always conclude in almost every case and that the civilizations in general terms begin with the Pelasgians, but the main question that rises to this point is: Who were they?
Nermin Vlora Falaski, in her book "Linguistic and genetic heredities" (written also in English language), has deciphered Pelasgic and Etruscan inscriptions with today's Albanian language. This would try that the Albanians (Descendants of the Illyrians) are the modern descendants of the Pelasgians, one of the most ancient civilizations that lived Europe. Here we will propose some translations of Falaski.
Therefore, in Italy it exists the locality of the TOSCHI (the Tuscany), therefore note "Toskeria" in southern Albania.
Note: Many authors support that the Tosk word, or Tok, is the "DHE" synonym, modern Albanians use indifferently the word "DHE" and "TOK" in order to say "earth"
In Tuscany an ancient city is founded from the Pelasgians, that is Cortona, (Note, called in Albanian: COR=harvest, TONA=ours, that is our harvests). From the immense and fertile plain of the Val di Chiana it is approached a fast hill, and on the top of that, a beautiful castle is found, transformed in archaeological museum. In a large epigrafic patrimony, there is also one particularly beautiful and interesting registration, on a sarcophagus bearing the following inscription.

oania

Nermin Vlora Falaski simply translated this pelasgian inscription with the Albanian language:

oania

The ship is for us pride, courage and liberty
Ire, ira, in albanian has the positive meaning of "pride", while in english, as well as in latin, italian and in old french stands for "anger". We can deduce that ira is a reason of pride in war, becoming negative in peace. However, in albanian the word is rather obsolete. In Sanskrit, latin, spanish, the word ir, ire, means "to go", But with the slight change from ir to iras, in sanskrit means "hostile behavoiur". The several sources inform to us that the Greeks learned from the Pelasgians not only the art of the working of the metals, of the construction of wall, but they learned, perfecting it, their way to write and made their divinities their own, like as an example DE-MITRA (Dhe=earth Mitra=womb, that is the GODDESS MOTHER EARTH), or AFER-DITA (Afer=near, Dita=day, later called Venus from the Romans).
The Pelasgians, that were called also The Sea People, since they were skillful and free navigators, they called ILLYRIA (ILLYRIA for the Romans) their homeland: which mean the country of the free people (lir=free), as a land spanning from the mediterranean to the Danube.
The Root of the word lir can be traced in the following languages: Pelasgo-illyrian (Liri), Etruscan (Liri), Albanian (Liri), Italian (libertà), French (Liberte), Latin (libertas), English (liberty), Spanish (libertad), Rumanian (libertade), Portuguese (liberdade).
In Italy, and precisely in Lazio, it exists the Liri mount, the Liri river, and Liri Fountain. This name has been conserved during the centuries in several the Mediterranean European countries, probably through the irradiation of the several illiric tribes, like the Etruscans, the Messapi, the Dauni, the Veneti, the Piceni, etj, Everyone of these names has meaning in the Albanian language: ETRURIA (E=of, TRURIA= Brain, country of intelligent people), MESSAPI (MES=center, HAPI=open, country of open people), DAUNI (dauni, separated), to VENETI (name deriving from the goddess VEND, native land, place for excellence), PICENI (PI=to drink, KENI=you have, place with abundant water).
The "Pelasgian" name can be referred to the Albanian word PELLG (deep sea), like in Italian pelago.

This is an illiyric registration, dated between the III-II century a.C, it is currently situated in the archaeological museum of Durres, in Albania:

kaie

Underego your pain and weep, if that helps you anguish, but entrust him to the warm earth, to the Heavenly Grace and to the Supreme Good

It is important to notice that the language of this registration is so similar to the modern Albanian, than with difficulty can be thought that it goes back more than two thousand years ago.
Normally, more ancient inscriptions are written from right to left, sometimes continuing alternately from left to right, namely in a bustrophedic way, often without interruption between each word. the Durres documents we have just seen, is formulated from left to right, revealing a relatively recent engraving and the writing always went from left to right.
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In going to the search of new inscriptions, from the Aegean to the Atlantic and accidentally in Egypt and beyond, in the attempt to not only discover their content, but also in order to verify the monogenesis of the languages that comes supported from eminent students, in the Archaeological Museum of Atene it has been met a stele that is quite ancient and that contains a written up bustrofhedic registration with the Pelasgian alphabet and expressing a heartbreak mourning. This stele has been discovered in the island of Lemno and, in general terms, it comes considered much difficult and little every convincing attempt to comprise the content of that writing. And it is for that reason very little attempts have been made to seriously engage and melt that enigma. We begin showing this Stele of Lemno, attributed to 6th century BCE (but from some characterized studious is older):

lemno

But, observing with attention the registration, since the first words, we can see that it is recorded in the pelasgo-illyrian language, like in the rest of the euro-Mediterranean territories, and it is therefore obvious that we can decipher it only through the Albanian language, this is the translation

4

5

6

This entire bustrophedic registration, where the letters TH and H can be read continuously, in order to represent sighs and sobs, as we would today make AH and OH contains tormenting complains of a funeral, obviously for the dead person that had been also a great hero. We now rewrite our the Stele in a modified shape adapting it to the modern era:

MOURNING, we are in full mourning,
anguish, ill luck all over,
women covered with black veils.
Grief you have given to the kinship, oh kinsman!
He belongs to our stock, Ah! , Oh!
He was torn away from us, what misfortune.
But in order which guilt, this disaster?
Gelid is his golden throne, Ah!
Of his fame we were proud, Oh!
Grief, grief in the whole world,
tearing him away, we are beheaded!
This grief struck us suddently, ah!
Alas, who knows for what fault? Oh!

Our kinsman he was,
Why ever did he struck us with such grief?
In Grief and despair, ah!
tears choke us, Oh!
He, who kept up our stock,
for what fault, now does he extinguish it?
Ah! Oh!

Oh! precious he was,
knife wounds, oh misfortune,
he suffered so much!
In Silence, never uttering an insult!
Ah! Oh!
You, kinsman, you have beheaded us, Oh!
You, great affliction you have given us, Ah! Oh!

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The word "ZI" (or "SI") appears also in this inscription, very short but remarkable for tenor, also found at Feltre (Northern Italy).

sinale

"We suffer grief without end"

We must be always aware that the linguistic wealth of the people is the only incontestable document of the archives, especially when other tests lack, but its above all, the main proof of the human creativity.
Several scholars uphold the thesis of the monogenesis of the languages, particularly during these last 2 centuries, when the progress of the communications has given to the persons the possibility to move with facility and of having contacts also with populations in remote zones much fastly.
Alfredo Trombetti, Elia Lattes and Francisco have been cited as Italians which are valid supporters of this thesis, beyond that to the illyric origin of the italian populations. Beyond to cited authors, there are other scholars, German, Austrians, French and English who assert the illyrica origin of the italian populations. A particular merit goes to prof the Zacharie Mayani, teacher to the Sorbona, which in years 1970 has published 3 large volumes, in order to support that the Etruscan language it can be understand only through the Albanian language. In order to verify the truth of its discovery, he studied the Albanian, before to Paris, then in Albania, in order to improve it. The three volumes published by Mayani are entitled: Les Etrusques Commencent a Parler; Les Etrusques Parlent; La fin du Myst;re Etrousque.
In any case, he who for first has launched and diffused the idea of the monogenesis of the languages was Sir William Jones (1746-1794), famous orientalist that at the end of his intense life knew 28 languages. However, in our days, the valid supporter of this thesis is prof. the Colin Renfrew of the university of Cambridge, who in his work Archeaology and Linguistics published in 1989, writes:
;The main reason of the publication of this job is in order to put in evidence that the archeologists of these last years, in order to recompose the past have not taken in the due consideration the witness of linguistics.
in our globe, there is always a horizon, beyond which it is not possible to see. Therefore, as far as the antiquity, our Divine horizon are the Pelasgians. Being they the first inventors of the phonetic writing, we cannot deny that the true culture begins with the Pelasgi, as also we have learned from several authors of the antiquity.
For the time being, let us put aside the linguistic correspondences and let us read some inscription found from the Aegean to the Atlantic with the samewords with a common meaning, such as Yj, Arno, Reze etc.
We may begin with words found in Albania, all of pelasgo-Illyrian origin. On this little temple of the III century B.C found and kept in the city-state of Apollonia (west-Albania) we can read:

we

8

"The Child entrusted to this temple, now is deified. Let it be for the Good!"

After reading this illyric inscription, that, without a doubt, corresponds to the Modern Albanian, concentrated to the essence of the just meant, we read another, equally beautiful, of Durres. As the previous one narrates of Deification (YJNERIM) and that it belongs to III the century a.C:

14

"Oh, (Lord) deify her and make her belong to Thou. Let it be for the good!"
Herodotus has explained to us that, before the arrival of the Greeks, that territory was called PELASGIA. He also told to us that the Greeks learned from the Pelasgians the art of the working of the metals, the construction of walls, the writing that refined and that until the discovery of the Latin, was the only divulgative writing. Still today, in the several museums of Albania there are epigraphs written up with the Greek alphabet, whose content it is comprised however not with the Greek language, but with Albanian, with the exceptions ofa few neologism. We shall have the opportunity to examine some of these inscriptions.
We were dealing with registrations that contain words YJ (stars) like already seen, also with those with ARNO (Creator) and REZE (beams).

Since we speak about the monogenesis of the languages, we return to this river of the Adriatic and read in the archaeological museum of Siena this registration that is found on a wonderful sarcophagus, where moreover all the three words with that we wanted to deal are found(YJ, REZE and ARNO).
From the relief shown in front of the sarcophags with personages in a state of meditation and with the Godness Vend in the middle it is easy to deduce a cosmological meaning of the inscription:

365356

Now we read the translation:

10

As we know, the Etruscans called themselves Resa. Let us now recompose this inscription in its dynamic modern form
Arno, (Creator), as you for us are in the stars, you deserve be commemorate by all the Etruscans (Resa)

The word ARNO, today, we find it only in the Albanian language with declassed meaning of restorer, but, to restore something damaged, also means to recreate it, therefore the interpretation of the word ARNO in this and other registrations of the Etruria task is valid.
Moreover, there is the very famous river ARNO who bathes, between others, the flourishing city of Florence: and we know that the civilizations are always born close to important rivers.
YJ (stars): neither this word has been found in other languages, except the Albanian, also being a much common one in epigrafici documents of the antiquity, from the Aegean to the Atlantic. YJ, YJNOR, HYJNERON are coming from terms from the pelasgo-illirico-Etruscan. In fact, they are found in abundance in their registrations, but today they are used only in the Albanian language. From this we can deduce that the several shapes of YJ could be of proto-Indo-European origin. And we can come to this conclusion by taking in consideration all the other Indo-European languages that do not call YJE the stars, but: Sanscrito (Astra), Italian (astro, stella), Spanish (Estrella), Portuguese (Estrela), English (Stars), Greek (Aster) Persian (Setareh), German (Stern).
In the Iberian Peninsula registrations much similar to those of the Illiria are found and of the Etruria, recorded with the pelagic alphabet and are always interpreted through the Albanian.
We have mentioned the registrations with word YJE and derivatives. Now, in order to remain in the topic, between registrations of the Portugal of the South, discoveries to the first of XVIII the century and up to now have never been deciphered, and we see this epigrafe that it appears on the stele n.22:

22

I have dedicated It to the divinity when i was still alive

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